Thursday, March 26, 2020
Hamlet Bryce Nations 4/28/00 Smith Lit112 Crumbling Castle Hamlet is a complex play with many characters that each has an important role in the development of the story line. In the play, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are inserted for nothing more than comic relief. But on the contrary, in the movie they are hopeless wanderers looking for meaning in the world. The pair is so lost in their mental endeavors that they do not even notice the crumbling of a royal family and ultimately their own deaths. Through Rosencrantz and Guildenstern we learn many lessons of the laws of nature and mathematics. They find answers to some of the worlds most difficult problems that have not even begun to be discovered according to the history books. Such discoveries as Newton's law of gravity, the steam engine, and the theory of probability can all be solved in their own somewhat idiotic ways. They also argue and prove to each other the obvious puzzles in life. When trying to demonstrate the difference in which objects fall, Rosencrantz says, You would think that the iron ball would fall at a faster Nations 2 rate than this feather. Upon dropping the objects the iron ball plummets to the floor while the feather floats to the ground proving a common fact. There are significant differences between the movie and the book. In the book the real world is that of Elsinore to which Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are brought into. The movie puts Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in a make-believe world on a journey through the play of hamlet. In the movie the real world is represented by featureless rock and desolate forests, through which the pair journeys to find meaning. The only thing they can seem to remember is a royal summons given to them from the king of Denmark. Chance is a central image that is associated with the two throughout the film and was shown through the coin toss. The fact that the coin always landed upon the heads side could also serve as foreshadowing the pair's death. For there seems to be an almost one hundred percent probability that the coin will land on heads and an almost one hundred percent probability that they will be beheaded. The players have a key role in both the film and text. They provide an important role in catching King Claudius in the text and serve as comic relief in the film. They are first introduced in the film when they bump in to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern on the way to the castle. They beg for audiences saying that without one actor's are useless and then begin to sound off a list of possible performances. The last scene in the movie shows the players riding off down the same road that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern first traveled. This is hinting that perhaps all the action has taken place within the players wagon and stage. Nations 3 The characters within Elsinore remain constant with their actions between the text and film. The story of Hamlet shows the downfall and desecration of the role Denmark family. All the characters within the walls of Elsinore rot and begin to fall apart by the end of the story. Many of them succumb to plain madness like Prince Hamlet and Ophelia. It is almost as if a wave of evil has attacked the once peaceful castle bringing murder and betrayal upon all within it. At the end of the text the characters all seem to be composed of hatred and vengeance. But this could also be considered their decomposition into wild animal like people who murder at will. In both the film and text no problem seems to have a clear solution. Shakespeare Essays
Friday, March 6, 2020
Deserts, glaciers and climate Geological features have historically provided dramatic and enchanting views for people. Some examples include mountain peaks, desert surfaces and coastal cliffs. Despite providing magnificent sceneries, the potentially harmful nature of some of these features provides hazards to the society.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Deserts, glaciers and climate specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Landslides and volcanic eruptions have always been cataclysmic, leading in loss of lives. These features have been used in scientific research studies while others serve as tourist attractions. The features display some similarities and differences depending on whether they are in desserts or glaciers. Desert landscapes cover slightly over one third of the land surface on earth (Hallmann Steinberg, 2000). They are usually dry, receiving extremely minimal rainfall, thus supporting a small number of life forms. The vicinity frequently e xperiences harsh climatic conditions typified by either exceptionally hot or extremely cold. There are diverse forms of deserts classified depending on the quantity of rainfall received and its location. The contrast between the desert and glacial landscape is the extreme weather conditions and landforms dotted across the surface. The desert landscape is characterized by kilometers of dunes and stone surfaces. Stones of unlike solidity and constitution erode at singular rates to fabricate the splendid wilderness imagery. Several features including playas and blowouts make up the desert landscape (Ryan, 2008). Glaciers also face displacement and erosion, similar to deserts, which result in the formation of landforms. The glacier rubs out substances underneath it as it shifts leaving matter on rocks (Ryan, 2008). The glacier accumulates the material which it eventually deposits elsewhere, giving evidence to their direction of movement. The resulting landform of the desert landscapes i s characterized by its configuration through wind actions and weathering. When the globe heats up, warm air, which is less heavy, physically ascends to the summit headed for the poles while cold air settles down. This breeze process is though affected by the revolving of the world thus fashions a sidetracking energy on the current of air. The rotational speeds of the wind depend on the distance from the equator (Ryan, 2008). The speed of rotation is frequently zero and the poles and gradually increases towards the equator.Advertising Looking for essay on geology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Glaciers are formed when it is cold enough for ice not to melt during winter snow. This climate is normally experienced in elevated areas around the polar. Huge accumulations of snow must exist in a gently sloping rocky area which will prevent its loss (Hallmann Steinberg, 2000). Molecules in the ice are reorganized without c hange of physical structure, forming new crystals. Even though it is presently being amplified by the media, climatic changes have historically being there. The year of climatic change can be determined through scientific research in ocean sediments and tree rings. Volcanic upsurges around the terrain and changes in path directions are some of the causes of weather modifications. Some of the effects of this change were ice ages and interglacial periods when the planet was warming. Natural sources like volcanoes result in greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (Ryan, 2008). The presence of the gases adds to the chilling and temperate occurrences. The earth may begin to cool due to adjustments in its orbit. More CO2 thus dissolves in the oceans hence making the planet much cooler (Hallmann Steinberg, 2000). Wild forest fires and other sources of heat radiation make the earth warmer. The oceans receive less CO2 hence gets warmer. There was a small cooling event around the 16th centur y caused a slight cooling of the earth. The earth experienced warming during the medieval times across different regions such as Europe. The beginning of the industrial age is however the time when the earth started experiencing continuous warming. This results from the production of greenhouse gases through industries, automobiles and manufacturing activities. Climatic change has resulted in overall heat increase. Patterns of rainfall have changed in various regions, exemplified by more rainfall in certain regions and occasionally in others. Aquatic levels have been progressively expanding, increasing by more than ten centimeters. In the 21st century, temperatures will rise; hence the thawing of glaciers will escalate. There would be extreme weather changes due to the increase in temperatures. The rise of sea levels would interfere with coastlines and activities on beaches. There would be increased erosion and the subsidence of land would thus considerably reduce. The effect on des erts would also be tragic. Life forms, which depend on the little precipitation, would not have any water from streams, which would undoubtedly have dried up. Most deserts on earth are fed by glaciers. Melting of the glaciers due to climate change will impair their water services to the deserts, which will become more arid and incapable of sustaining life.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Deserts, glaciers and climate specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They will become hotter and much drier. The soil becomes further degraded through wearing away and compaction (Hallmann Steinberg, 2000). Extreme desertification will lead to more migration and end up overcrowding some areas. There would be further wearing down of the ice resulting in more intense liquefaction. An estimated 1/3 of all glaciers will disappear in less than 100 years. The distribution of river flow and water supply would decrease thus impacting agriculture and production of electricity. Hydrological changes would change navigation systems of rivers, which may provide benefits for shipping industries, which could previously not navigate some areas. Life forms on earth would be threatened if climatic changes exaggerate. Unfortunately, these effects will not be equally distributed across the earth. Some regions will be more adversely affected while some will experience the benefits of the weather changes. Some of its impacts will be irreversible depending on their rate and magnitude. References Hallmann, M. Steinberg, M. (2000). Greenhouse gas carbon dioxide mitigation: Science and technology. Florida: CRC Press. Ryan, J. (2008). Desert and glacial landscapes. Technology: science. November 20, 2008. Web.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Influence and role of trade unions - Essay Example Many organizations long ago realized that it is more efficient to hire purposeful, responsible, and interested in their job people. Accordingly people, who get a job today, automatically receive all those privileges labour unions for had struggled for. As a matter of fact trade unions cannot find their place in the new system of labour relationship. In the course of time fundamental economic changes had happened in the country. The traditional heavy industry, a stronghold of trade unions, gradually becomes the thing of the past. According to Turner, "if unions can not hold their own and adapt to changing circumstances in the core industrial work force, the traditional bastion of labour strength, it is difficult to imagine that national prospects for unions elsewhere can be promising1". Labour unions also have not been taken in the extremely developing industry of high technologies, and have not been widely accepted in the services sphere. So we can agree with the statement of Robert Baldwin, who claims that one of the factors that contribute to weakling of trade unions is "unskilled labour-displacing nature of new technology, including outsourcing2". Notwithstanding it is wrong to say, that trade unions are doomed. One can hardly find an example of a democratic society, which does not have trade unions in its structure. British trade unions now are trying to take their own place in the new national economy.The role of state in labour market The role of the state in regulation of relations on a labour market increased in the post-war history of the Great Britain. Leading political forces send to the consent that the chronic unemployment in the country in 1930th years, intensity between the labour and the capital, and the general social instability should be eliminated by means of mixed economy and the Welfare state. As a result of such turn in consciousness of British establishment the labour governments and later conservative governments began to pursue a policy of Keynesianism and social-democratic etatism. There has come a new phase in relations between authority and working-class movement when the last one has been recognized, on a par with business, the necessary participant of formation of social and economic policy of the British state. Influence and role of trade unionsTrade unions have turned to one of the most active public organizations rendering great influence on actions of parties in power. Having got such legitimacy in regulation of relations on a labour market, the British working-class movement became an integral part of the post-war device of the state. The ruling class has recognized it as the necessary partner in business of maintenance of social stability. The organized labour has appeared both object, and the subject in mutual relations with the state. As an object it is the inseparable part of a society necessary for the sanction of conflicts arising in it. As a subject it is the defender of interests of working class, which quite often conflicted to aspirations of capitalism.In 1950-1960 years, when the country experienced the economic boom, trade unions have played a visible constructive role in processes of regulation of social development, socialization of citizens of the country, adjustment of manufacture-consumption cycle, and the society's
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
NewCorp Scenarios Legal Brief - Research Paper Example However, this is not outlined in the employment documents (Lambert, 2005). Therefore, this gave pat no reason to drop in his performance. He should have tried all the best to ensure the performance in the institution was maintained at high levels. The employer and the institution are not directly involved in family issues and this is not a reason for the drop in performance. Therefore, it was in his interests to ensure the family issues and moving to another city does not affect his performance at work. However, he left this to affect his performance at work, which was detrimental to his career. According to statutory laws, an employer has the legal rights to hire a worker depending on his or her qualifications. Similarly, the same institution or employer has the rights to terminate the worker without satisfactory results. Therefore, an employee has to make sure he or she is giving satisfactory results in the institution. Apparently, performance is the only indicator that can be used in justifying an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s worth in the institution. Therefore, when an employee is not giving satisfactory results, he is at the helm of disqualification and termination. Since this is an independent entity, it has its rights of disqualifying employees that are not beneficial to the institution. This states the reason behind the patÃ¢â¬â¢s disqualification at the work place. This is clearly indicated in the signed documents, where an employee is terminated when there is unsatisfactory performance. As such, the institution acted upon its jurisdiction to terminate pat, the reason being that PatÃ¢â¬â¢s performance was not pleasing the institution. Though PatÃ¢â¬â¢s termination at his work place could be justified according to the jurisdiction of the institution, there are several points that should be considered. First, the notice of termination was minute. He was given a short notice of termination, which was not well received by Pat. Secondly, the institution should h ave given Pat more time to work on his performance. Giving Pat more time should have prepared him to work on his performance in the institution. This would have improved on his performance. However, it seems the institution had already made a decision to terminate him. Apparently, the institution should have used PatÃ¢â¬â¢s historical performance at the institution and given him another chance. Consequentially, some institutions do not believe in second chances, which ruined his career. Similarly, PatÃ¢â¬â¢s views at the school board meeting should not be used as a scapegoat for disqualification. Second Case Relationships at the work place are highly opposed by many institutions as they constantly affect the work of the employees. In this case, it is evidently seen that the two employees were affected by their relationship at the work place. To begin with, the employer has to be skeptical about the work relationships. Most employers are not for the idea of dating at the work pla ce. As such, they give stringent punishment to any employees that are found dating at the work place. Though it is hard to control human emotions, relationships at the work place are not accepted by the employers and the institution. Therefore, it was in the jurisdiction of the employer and institution to make a succinct control measure against such relationships in the institution. This would have lessened the outcome as Paula and Sam would have avoided such a scenario.
Monday, January 27, 2020
Behavioral Approach To Leadership Management Essay The focal point of thuis chapter will be on theoretical developments made in leadership literature with the way of time by the advocates. Hence, the existing chapter will be divided into four major parts. In the first part, trait approach to leadership will be described. In the second part, behavioral approach to leadership will be discussed. Third part will be devoted to contingency approach to leadership. In last and fourth part, cutting-edge approach to leadership will be presented. Trait Leadership Theory: Leadership consists of leaders, followers and situations, but trait approach only focuses on leaders. Trait approach was one of the first systematic attempts to study leadership in which research started by focusing on leaders traits that differentiate between leaders and non-leaders. Trait theory assumes that people are born with inherited characteristics. In other words, leaders were born, not made and leadership is rooted in characteristics of leaders. This assumption that leaders are born not made was taken from Great Man Theory. The underlying concept of this theory was that leaders are from upper class. Great Man theory was named so because in those days, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality. Stogdill studied more than 124 studies conducted between 1904 and 1947. Stogdill (1948) stated that the aspect allied with leadership could be categorize under six broad directions: capacity (intelligence, alertness, originality and judgment); achievement (scholarship, knowledge); responsibility (reliability, inventiveness, determination assertiveness, self-assurance and the desire to excel); participation (activity, friendliness, teamwork, flexibility and absurdity); status (socioeconomic position and popularity) and situation (status, ability, wants and wellbeing of followers, objectives to be accomplished). Bryman (1993) also talk about the principle that there are distinct attributes that distinguish a leader from a non-leader, these being physical features (height); personality factors: (extroverted); and ability related characteristics: (speech fluency). Trait theory offers no explanation for relationship between individual characteristics and leaderships. This theory did not consider the impact of situational variables that moderate the relationship between leader traits and measures of effectiveness. As a result of lack of consistent findings, linking individual traits to leadership effectiveness, empirical studies of leaders traits were largely abandoned in 1950s. Behavioral approach to Leadership: In beginning of 1950s, focus of leadership research shifted away from leader traits to leaders behaviors. Purpose of this research was that the behavior exhibited by the leaders is more important than their physical, mental, emotional traits or internal state. Behavioral theories differentiate between effective leaders from ineffective leaders. Behavioral theories of leadership are based on the belief that great leaders are made, not born. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through training and observations, thus, anyone can become a leader if they want to. Leadership is composed of two general kinds of behaviors: task behavior and relationship behavior. Task behavior focus on goal accomplishment and help subordinates in achieving their behavior while relationship behavior help subordinates to feel comfortable at workplace. Central focus of this approach is to examine how leaders combine these two types of behavior in order to make subordinates to put their efforts to reach a goal. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the behavioral approach. Some of the first studies were conducted at Ohio State University in late 1940s. At the same time, another group of researchers at Michigan University were studying leadership functions. These studies sparked hundreds of other leadership studies and are still widely used. The Ohio Studies: Group of researchers at Ohio studies analyzed how a group of individuals acted when they were leading a group or organization. For this purpose, complete questionnaire about leader was developed on that questionnaire, subordinates had to identify the no. of times their leaders engaged in certain kind of behavior. Questionnaire was composed of 150 questions and was called the Leader Behavioral Description Questionnaire. (Hemphill and Coons, 1957). Questionnaire was distributed among military, manufacturing companies and educational institutes. The result showed that the certain clusters of behaviors were typically of leaders. Researchers found that respondents responses on the questionnaire clustered around two general types of leaders behavior: Initiating Structure and Consideration (Stogdill, 1974). Initiating Structure sometimes called task-oriented behavior, involves planning, organizing and coordinating the work of subordinates. Consideration involves showing concern for subordin ates, being supportive, recognizing subordinates accomplishments, and providing for subordinates welfare. Many studies have been conducted to determine which style of leadership is most effective in a particular situation. In some contexts, high consideration has been found to be most effective, but in other situations, high initiating structure has been found most effective. Some research has shown that being high on both behaviors is the best form of leadership. The University of Michigan (1961 1967): The Michigan leadership studies took place at about the same time as those at Ohio Studies. The focus of the Michigan studies was to determine the principles and methods of leadership that led to productivity and job satisfaction. The studies resulted in two general leadership behaviors or orientations: an employee orientation and production orientation (Likert). Leaders with an employee orientation showed genuine concern for interpersonal relations, while those with a production orientation focused on the task or technical aspects of the job. The supporters proposed that the more the leader is employee oriented, the lesser hell be production oriented and vice versa. He suggested that employee oriented approach results in the most positive outcomes. The Managerial Grid: The behavioral dimensions from early behavioral leadership studies provided the basis for the development of a two dimensional grid for appraising leadership style. One concept based largely on behavioral approach to leadership effectiveness was the Managerial (or Leadership Grid) development by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton (1964). The Grid helps to explain how leaders help organizations to reach their purposes through two factors: concern for production and concern for people. It closely parallels the idea and findings that emerged in the Ohio State and University of Michigan Studies. Concern for production refers to how a leader is concerned with achieving organizational tasks. Concern for people refers to how a leader attends to the people in the organization who are trying to achieve its goals. In grid, concern for production has been placed on horizontal axis and leaders concern for people has been placed on vertical axis. Leaders behavior was ranked on a scale of 1 (Low) to 9(h igh). The grid has 81 potential categories into which a leaders behavioral style might fall, emphasis was placed on five: authority compliance (9,1), country club management(1,9), impoverished management (1,1), middle of the road management(5,5), and team management(9,9).Researchers concluded that managers performed best when using a team management(9,9) style. It promotes a high degree of participation and team work in the organization a satisfied a basic need in employees to be involved and committed to their work. Team management approach cannot be affective in all situations. So leaders have to adapt their style according to followers ability. The assumption of the leader behavior was that there were certain behaviors that would be universally affective for leaders. Unfortunately, empirical research has not demonstrated consistent relationship between leaders behavior and leader effectiveness. The failure to attain a consistent relationship led to a new focus on situational influences. Like trait research, leader behavior research did not consider situational influences that might moderate the relationship between leader behavior and leaders effectiveness. Situational Leadership Theory: As the name of approach implies, situational leadership focuses on leadership in different situations. The premise of the theory is that different situations demand different kind of leadership. From this perspective, to be an effective leader requires that a person adapts his or her style to the demands of different situations. Contingencies theories gained prominence in 1960s and 1970s. Few of the situational leadership theories are discussed in next section. The Fiedler Model (1967): Fred Fiedler was the one who gave the first comprehensive contingency model. It specifies how situational factors interact with leaders traits and behaviors to influence leadership effectiveness. This theory proposed that effective group performance depends on the proper match between a leaders style of interacting with his or her followers and the degree to which the situation allowed the leader to control and influence. The theory suggests that the constructivity of the situation determine the effectiveness of task and person oriented leader behavior. Constructivity is determined by three things: leader follower relationship, task structures and the position power. Situation is constructive when followers respect and trust the leader, the task is highly structured and leader has control over rewards and punishments. To measure leaders style, Fiedler developed Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Questionnaire. In questionnaire researcher used 16 pairs of contrasting adjectives like hardworking-not hardworking, friendly-unfriendly. Leaders were asked to think of a coworker with whom they had tough time and rate them on bipolar scale ranging from 1 to 8(8 describes positive adjective while 1 describes negative adjective out of the pair). Fiedler believed that you could determine a persons basic leadership style on the basis of the responses to the LPC questionnaire. Fiedler concluded that high LPC score shows that leader is people/relationship oriented while low LPC score means that leader is task oriented. Fiedler research indicated that leaders were more effective either in highly favorable situation or highly unfavorable situation while relationship oriented leaders perform better in moderate situations. Fiedler contingency has been criticized on both conceptual and methodological grounds. There was no discussion on the practicality of LPC and it is probably unrealistic to assume that a person cannot change his style in order to fit the situation. This theory does not take into consideration all situational factors. Despite its shortcomings, empirical research has supported many of specific propositions of the theory, the Fiedler model provided evidence that effective leadership style needed to reflect situational factors. Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership Theory (1969 1977): In contrast to Fiedlers contingency leadership model and its underlying assumption that leadership style is hard to change (trait theory). The Hersey Blanchard situational leadership model suggests that successful leaders do adjust their style (behavioral approach). Secondly, Fiedler define situation covering three dimensions namely leader-follower relationship, task structure and position power while Hersey and Blanchard defined situation as a function of followers maturity/task related maturity of subordinates. Followers maturity is indicated by followers readiness to perform in a given situation. Readiness is largely based on two major factors-follower ability and follower confidence. Situational leadership theory uses the same two leadership dimensions that Fiedler identified: task and relationship behavior. However, Hersey and Blanchard go a step further by considering each as either high or low and then by combining them into four specific leadership styles. The two-by-two matr ix shown below indicates the four possible leadership styles. High Participating Styles Share Ideas Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Followers able, unwilling, not confident Selling Style Explain Decisions Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Followers unable, willing, confident Delegating Style Turnover decisions Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Followers able, willing, confident Telling Style Give instructions Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Followers unable, unwilling, not confident Low High Hersy Blanchard model map each leadership style to each maturity level, as shown below. Maturity Level Appropriate Leadership Style M1: Low Maturity S1: Telling/Directing M2: Medium Maturity, limited skills S2: Selling/ Coaching M3: Medium maturity, higher skills but lacking confidence S3: Participating/Supporting M4: High Maturity S4: Delegating To use this model, reflect on the maturity of individuals within team. The table shows which leadership style Hersey and Blanchard consider the most effective for people with that level of maturity. Unlike many other leadership theories, this approach does not have empirical research findings to justify and support the underpinning on which it stands. As a result, there is ambiguity regarding how the approach conceptualizes certain aspects of leadership. It does not explain how subordinates move from low development levels to high development level nor is it clears in explaining how commitment changes over time for subordinates. Also, the model does not clearly define how to match leader behavior from one situation to another (Draft 1999). Vroom and Jago 2007investigated that overwhelming focus of this theory was on one situational variable (the maturity of followers) and thus other important contextual characteristics within which interactions take place are ignored. According to assumption of model, followers maturity is taken as independent variable while task related leaders behavior is taken as dependent variable. However, it remains one of the better-known contingency theo ries of leadership and offers important insights into the interaction between subordinates ability and leadership style. Path-Goal Theory: Path-goal theory first appeared in the leadership literature in early 1970s in work of Evan (1970) and House (1971). Path-goal theory emphasized the relationship between leaders style and characteristics of the subordinates and work-setting. This theory was based on expectancy theory (Vroom 1964), which suggests that subordinates will be motivated if they think they are capable of performing their work (path instrumentality), if they believe their efforts will result in certain outcomes (expectancy) and if they believe that the reward for doing their work are worthwhile (valence). In this perspective, leaders behavior is dependent upon subordinates needs, desires and task characteristics. Therefore, path goal theory is designated to explain how leaders can help subordinates along the path to their goals by selecting specific behaviors that are best suited to subordinate needs and to situations in which subordinates are working. By choosing appropriate style, leaders can give rise specific motives related to task through rewards in order to achieve goals. House (1971) identifies four leaders behavior. These are achievement oriented, directive, participative and supportive. Leaders behaviors are contingent to the environment factors and followers characteristics. In contrast to Fiedlers view, a leader could not change his or her behavior, but House assumes that leaders are flexible. In other words, path goal theory assumes that same leader can display any or all of these leadership styles depending upon the situation. Path-goal theory proposes two classes of situational or contingency variables that moderate the leader -behavior outcome relationship: environmental/task characteristics that are outside the control of followers (e.g. task design, formal system of authority)- these have a major impact on the way a leaders behavior influence followers level of motivation. Second is subordinates/followers characteristics (e.g. locus of control, experience) these determine how a leaders behavior is interrupted by subordinates in a particula r work context (Northouse, 2007). Environmental contingency factors Task Design Primary Workgroup Formal System of Authority Leaders Behavior Outcomes Directive Performance Supportive Job satisfaction Participative Achievement Oriented Subordinates Contingence Factors Perceived level of task obtained Locus of Control Need for affiliation Authoritarianism Experience The theory proposes that leaders behavior will be ineffective when its redundant with sources of environmental structure or incongruent with follower characteristics. When followers needs are there, there is desire for leader intervention. Moreover, he described certain situations in which leaders interventions have positive impact and in which negative influence. It has been investigated that employee performance and satisfaction is likely to be positively influenced when the leader compensates for shortcomings in either the employee or in the work setting. However, if the leader spends time in explaining tasks that are routine tasks and are clear or when the employees has the ability and experience to handle them without leaders intervention, the employee is likely to see such directive behavior as redundant or even insulting. Based on these theoretical reasons, one can easily conclude that leaders intervention is dependent upon work settings. In some work settings leaders intervention is highly valued while in others have no value or even considered as negative. Later on, this notion became base for evolution of substitutes for leadership and followers need for leadership.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Accounting theory and its application is very fundamental to students and professional in accountancy. It equips people in the accountancy profession with financial accounting theory and associated research. Relevance of this theory is that it provides accountants with knowledge to critically investigate and analyze contemporary accounting issues. Research enables students to have broad thinking of current accounting issues such as environmental aspects and social responsibility aspects. The study of popular culture lead to research concerning all the emerging issues in the Accounting profession. It brought about the question as to whether students or other stakeholders in the profession should engage the attention of people in the field of research. Deegan,C. (2009) in his book stated that there is little attention given to issues that impact to aspects of the accounting profession. Relevant issues for study in accounting and auditing concern accounting principles and standards, auditing ,professional behavior and general professional matters, such as scope of services, maintenance of quality control and strategies. Study of popular culture has provided researchers with the following arguments to justify implication of the Accounting profession. a. Accounting is a dynamic line of specialization where participants/accountants should be in a position to respond to changes in the business society and come up with revised accounting principles and standards. This will enhance understanding of the financial statements to stakeholders and society in general. b. Public accounting like other profession in United States should provide high level of motivation for evaluating what the actual events. It further anticipates any additional changes in future to improve and provide information on value creation by entity from different dimensions from profit. From research this has lead development international public sector accounting standards The study of popular culture will enable researchers to determine emerging issues such as, unexpected business failure, legal liability of an independent auditor and effectiveness and appropriateness of audit evidence gathered from the society. Besides, it will factor the complex nature of business transactions which normally affect the position of an independent auditor. Studying the popular culture also provides researchers with knowledge to evaluate the value added to the financial statements by various entities. This helps to determine effects of social and environmental accounting; highlights the role of culture in explaining international differences and disclosures in accounting. Popular culture enables society in understanding the reaction of capital markets to financial reporting. By understanding popular culture, it lead to research on fundamental issues such as corporate governance, social and environmental reporting which enables companies in their Annual Operating Plan set aside some amount to used in promoting things like sporting activities. Culture has exceptionally attracted voluntary reporting by allowing research on institutional theory, legitimacy theory, stakeholderÃ¢â¬â¢s theory and positive accounting theory. Nevertheless the study popular culture has significantly analyzed normative theories of accounting as well as development of accounting for price level changes. It involves critical appraisal of Historical cost accounting approach, general purchasing power approach and current cost accounting approach. Culture study highlights efforts towards international harmonization of accounting in terms of disclosure and reporting. Application of accounting research has influenced extension of financial reports such employment statements which analyzes the benefits which employees get from employment which in turn its cost to the employer. Earnings per share analyze both basic earnings per share and diluted earnings per share in determining worthiness of company. Research of popular culture is very significance in understanding economic actions to a particular interest of groups within society and to the entire society; it involves extending the accountability of organization beyond the Traditional role providing financial account to the owners of the capital, in particular, the shareholders. Such an extension is predicated upon the assumption that companies do have wider responsibilities than simply to make money for their respective shareholders.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Here are some conditions under which a novelist could reasonably expect some government suport. In general terms, if the writer has already proved that he or she can write well, and if the stories produced are stimulating and interesting, then I consider that some financial help might be given. Language quality is difficult to define, but if the writing shows, for example, good grammar, a wide vocabulary, and elegance and imagination, then I can see a valid reason for assisting an author to spend some time free from money problems. Such a writing needs to be encouraged. the entertainment value of a book would be also a factor in deciding whether to provide assistance to an author. Further consideration would include social and educational values expressed in the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s work. However, if the ideas were socially irresponsible, or if the stories contain unnecessary violence or pornography for its own sake, then I would not want to see the author sponsored to write stories which do not benefit society. Other exceptions are the many writers of good books who do not require financial help. Books which proved to be extremely popular, such as the Harry Potter stories, clearly need no subsidy at all because the authors have become rich through their writing. Views on what good quality writing means will vary widely, and so if any author is to be given money for writing, then the decision would have to be made by a committee or panel of judge. An individual opinion would certainly cause disagreement among the reading public.